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Improving Resource Utilization for Arthroplasty Care by Leveraging Machine Learning and Optimization: A Systematic Review



Abstract


Background: There is a growing demand for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgery. The applications of machine learning (ML), mathematical optimization, and computer simulation have the potential to improve efficiency of TJA care delivery through outcome prediction and surgical scheduling optimization, easing the burden on health-care systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate strategies using advances in analytics and computational modeling that may improve planning and the overall efficiency of TJA care.

Methods: A systematic review including MEDLINE, Embase, and IEEE Xplore databases was completed from inception to October 3, 2022, for identification of studies generating ML models for TJA length of stay, duration of surgery, and hospital readmission prediction. A scoping review of optimization strategies in elective surgical scheduling was also conducted.

Results: Twenty studies were included for evaluating ML predictions and 17 in the scoping review of scheduling optimization. Among studies generating linear or logistic control models alongside ML models, only 1 found a control model to outperform its ML counterpart. Furthermore, neural networks performed superior to or at the same level as conventional ML models in all but 1 study. Implementation of mathematical and simulation strategies improved the optimization efficiency when compared to traditional scheduling methods at the operational level.

Conclusions: High-performing predictive ML-based models have been developed for TJA, as have mathematical strategies for elective surgical scheduling optimization. By leveraging artificial intelligence for outcome prediction and surgical optimization, there exist greater opportunities for improved resource utilization and cost-savings in TJA than when using traditional modeling and scheduling methods.


Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Optimization; Predictive modeling; Surgical scheduling; Total hip arthroplasty; Total knee arthroplasty.



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